Metal buildings face constant stress from wind forces including torsion, shear, compression, and lift. To counteract this pressure, steel buildings utilize different forms of bracing in the roof and walls to transfer the loads.
For most steel buildings under 60' wide, the diaphragm action provides all the bracing that is needed, but when high winds, heavy snow loads or even a large number of openings creates extra stress, a steel building may require one of the following types of additional reinforcement: X bracing employs steel rods or cables in the shape of an "X" to connect various parts of the frame tightly, weak axis bending increases the size of the main-frame base plates to prevent columns from twisting under heavy stress, and a wind column is an additional vertical member which reinforces a column.
Cable or Rod Bracing
Fixed Base or Wind Column Bracing
Portal Frame or Wind Bent Bracing
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